Epidemiological profile of breast cancer in Ijaw women in Yenagoa, Bayelsa state.


  • Paingha Joe Alagoa Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State Nigeria.




Breast cancer, epidemiology, Ijaw women


Background: Breast cancer is one of the leading malignancies in women globally. It is also the leading cause of death in women in many parts of the world. It is known that there are epidemiological differences in breast cancer based on race and ethnicity. However, there is a paucity of such studies among Ijaw women of the Niger Delta. This study therefore aims to document the epidemiological characteristics of Ijaw women with breast cancer.

Method: All case notes of Ijaw women who presented with breast cancer at the Federal Medical Centre between over a 2 – year period between January, 2015 and December, 2017 were studied retrospectively. Relevant data were obtained and analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).

Results: The mean age of patients was 49.42± 12.07 years. The youngest patient was 35 years while the oldest was 73 years. The age group from 30-40 years had the highest incidence of breast cancer with 37.5% of all patients. 32 (68.3%) of all patients with breast cancer were below 50 years of age. The left breast was the more affected accounting for 62%.

Most patients presented late to hospital, with 76.7% presenting with at least Stage III breast cancer.

Conclusion: Breast cancer occurs early in the life of the Ijaw woman and majority of them present late to hospital for treatment.

KEY WORDS: Breast cancer, epidemiology, Ijaw women.

Author Biography

Paingha Joe Alagoa, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State Nigeria.




Bray, F, Ferlay, J, Soerjomataram, I, Siegel, R.L, Torre, LA, Jemal, A. (2018), Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 68: 394-424. doi:10.3322/caac.21492

Fejerman L, Romieu I, John EM, et al. European ancestry is positively associated with breast cancer risk in Mexican women. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention. 2010; 19(4):1074–1082.

Carey LA, prou CM, Livasy CA, Dressler LG, Cowan D, Conway C, Karaca G, Troester MA, Tse CK, Edmisten S et al. Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study. JAMA. 2006; 295:2492-502.

Adesukanmi ARK, Lawal OO, Adelusola KA, Durosimi MA. The severity, outcome and challenges of breast cancer in Nigeria. Breast. 2006; 15(3):399-409.

Adebamowo, Adekunle.Case-controlled study of the epidemiological risk factors for breast cancer in Nigeria.Br J Surg. 1999 May;86(5):665-8

Anyanwu SN. Breast cancer in Eastern Nigeria: a ten year review. West Afr J Med. 2000 Apr-Jun; 19(2): 120-5

Olajide T O, Ugburo A O, Habeebu M O, Lawal A O, Afolayan M O, Mofikoya M O. Awareness and practice of breast screening and its impacton early detection and presentation among breast cancer patients attending a clinic in Lagos, Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract 2014;17:802-7.

Alagoa PJ, Dakpokpo O, Mukoro DG. Observations of some epidemiological and reproductive factors in women with breast cancer at the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. IOSR J Dental & Med Sci. 2014; 13(1):1-3.

Jedy-Agba E, McCormack V, Olaomi O, et al. Determinants of Stage at Diagnosis of Breast Cancer in Nigerian Women: Sociodemographic Factors. Cancer causes & control : CCC. 2017; 28(7):685-697. doi:10.1007/s10552-017-0894-y.

Bowen RL, Duffy SW, Ryan DA, Hart IR, Jones JL. Early onset of breast cancer in a group of British black women. Br J Cancer. 2008; 98(2):277–281.

World Health Statistics 2016: Monitoring health for the SDGs Annex B: tables of health statistics by country, WHO region and globally. World Health Organization. 2016. Retrieved 27 June 2016.

Pinheiro SP, Holmes MD, Pollak MN, Barbieri RL, Hankinson SE. Racial differences in premenopausal endogenous hormones. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention. 2005;14(9):2147–2153.

The breast. Williams NS, Bullstrode CJ, O”Connel PR. Bailey and Love’s short practice of surgery. 26th edition. Page 808. CRC Press.

The breast. Brunicardi FC, AndersenDK, Billar TR et al. Schwartz’s principles of surgery. 9th edition. Page 423. McGraw Hill.

Huo D, Adebamowo CA, Ogundiran TO, et al. Parity and breastfeeding are protective against breast cancer in Nigerian women. Br J Cancer. 2008;98(5):992-6.

Shen S, Zhong S, Xiao G, Zhou H, Huang W. Parity association with clinicopathological factors in invasive breast cancer: a retrospective analysis. Onco Targets Ther. 2017;10:477-481. Published 2017 Jan 21. doi:10.2147/OTT.S123888

Babalou A. The Association of Parity and Breastfeeding with Breast Cancer: A Review. Health Sci J. 2017, 11: 1.

Boder JME, Abdalla FBE, Elfageih MA, Abusaa A, Buhmeida A, Collan Y. Breast cancer patients in Libya: comparison with European and central African patients. Oncol Letters. 2011;2(2):323–330

Rambau PF, Chalya PL, Manyama MM, Jackson KJ. Pathological features retrospective study. BMC Research Notes. 2011:p. 214.

Ikpatt OF, Kronqvist P, Kuopio T, Ndoma-Egba R, Collan Y. Histopathology of breast cancer in different populations: Comparative analysis for Finland and Africa. Electronic J Path and Histology. 2002;8(4):24011-24018.

Forouzanfar MH, Foreman KJ, Delossantos AM, Lozano R, Lopez AD, Murray CJ. Breast and cervical cancer in 187 countries between 1980 and 2010: a systematic analysis. Lancet. 2011; 378:1461-1484.

Senie RT, Rosen PP, Lesser ML, Snyder RE, Schottenfeld D, Duthie K. Epidemiology of breast carcinoma II: factors related to the predominance of left-sided disease. Cancer. 1980;46(7):1705–1713.

Ekbom A, Adami HO, Trichopoulos D, Lambe M, Hsieh CC, Ponten J. Epidemiologic correlates of breast cancer laterality (Sweden) Cancer Causes Control. 1994; 5(6):510–516.

Perkins CI, Hotes J, Kohler BA, Howe HL. Association between breast cancer laterality and tumor location, United States,1994–1998. Cancer Causes Control. 2004;15(7):637–645.

Gogo-Abite M, Nwosu SO. Histopathological characteristics of female breast carcinomas seen at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Niger J Med. 2005 Jan-March; 14(1): 72-6

Ekanem VJ, Aligbe JU. Histopathological types of breast cancer in Nigerian women: a 12-year review (1993-2004). Afr J Reprod Health. 2006 Apr: 10(1): 71-5.

Mayun AA, Obiano SK, Shehu SK, Abdulazeez JO. Breast malignancies in a tertiary health setting in north eastern Nigeria: a histopathological review. Afr J Med Med Sci. 2009 Dec; 38(4): 337-41.

Adisa C A, Eleweke N, Alfred AA, Campbell M J, Sharma R, Nseyo O, Tandon V, Mukhtar R, Greninger A, Risi J D, Esserman L J. Biology of breast cancer in Nigerian women: A pilot study. Ann Afr Med [serial online] 2012 [cited 2018 Jul 9];11:169-75. Available from: http://www.annalsafrmed.org/text.asp?2012/11/3/169/96




How to Cite

Alagoa, P. J. (2019). Epidemiological profile of breast cancer in Ijaw women in Yenagoa, Bayelsa state. The Nigerian Health Journal, 18(3), 132–138. https://doi.org/10.60787/tnhj.v18i3.418

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.