Fearless Energy Drink Potentiates Anxiety, Oxidative Stress, and Neuronal Cell Damage on the Hippocampus of Adult Male Wistar Rat


  • Nwakanma AA Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Uli, Nigeria
  • Idaguko CA Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Edo State University, Uzairue, Nigeria https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0799-527X




Neuroscience, Hippocampus, Fearless, Energy drinks, Anxiety, Oxidative stress


Background: The relationship between the impact of Fearless energy drinks on the hippocampus has not yet been documented. Study investigated the effect of Fearless energy drinks on oxidative stress and hippocampal microstructure in Wistar rats.

Method: Twenty male rats weighing 160-200g were divided into four groups of five rats each.  Group A was the control, groups B, C and D received Fearless energy drink orally using gastric tube with the following doses: 2.5ml, 5ml and 7.5ml/kg/day respectively for three weeks. At the end, elevated plus maze test was carried out to check for anxiety. The animals were sacrificed and oxidative stress markers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were carried out; the brains were dissected for hippocampal specimens, which were processed for histological studies using hematoxylin and eosin method.

Result: There was an increased level of anxiety-like behavour in animals in the experimental groups, as they spent more time in the close arm of the maze than in the open arm of the maze when compared to the control. There was a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in SOD and a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in MDA, which indicate oxidative stress. Histological examination of the hippocampus from Fearless EDs groups showed vacuolation, hypertrophied pyramidal cells with numerous pyknotic nuclei, cracks in pyramidal cell layer and decreased cellular density in the pyramidal cell layer when compared to the control.

Conclusion: Fearless energy drinks administration induced anxiety, deficient antioxidant capacity and morphological change on the hippocampus of Wistar rats.


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How to Cite

Akudo, N. A., & Idaguko, C. A. (2024). Fearless Energy Drink Potentiates Anxiety, Oxidative Stress, and Neuronal Cell Damage on the Hippocampus of Adult Male Wistar Rat. The Nigerian Health Journal, 23(4), 926–934. https://doi.org/10.60787/tnhj-746



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