Prevalence of Tuberculosis, Rifampicin resistant Tuberculosis and associated risk factors in Presumptive Tuberculosis patients attending some hospitals in Kaduna, Nigeria
Keywords:Tuberculosis, Rifampicin resistance, GeneXpert, Ziehl Neelsen test, Risk factors, Kaduna State
Background: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Tuberculosis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to Rifampicin using GeneXpert in presumptive tuberculosis patients attending some hospitals in Kaduna, Nigeria.
Methods: The study design was cross sectional. A total of 198 sputum samples were collected from participants who had been administered questionnaires and screened using Ziehl Neelsen Acid Fast Bacilli (ZN AFB) method and GeneXpert molecular technique. Data obtained from this study was analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 23(SPSS® package version 23 Inc. Chicago Illinois, USA).
Results: Data obtained showed that using GeneXpert technique, the overall prevalence of TB and Rifampicin resistant TB (RRTB) was 40.4% and 1.25% respectively. A higher prevalence rate was reported among male subjects (47.2%), age group 31-40 (50.9%), those who earned less than 20,000 Naira monthly (41.8%), HIV positive subjects (54.5%), subjects that smoke cigarettes (72.2%) and those that had previous contact with someone living with TB infection (82.4%). The independent variables that were significantly associated with the rate of occurrence of TB (p<0.05 at 95% C.I) were age, gender, HIV status, smoking behaviour, and previous contact with someone having TB.
Conclusions: This study indicates high burden of TB and a low burden of rifampicin resistant tuberculosis among the participants. It highlights the need for rapid detection of TB and Rifampicin resistant strains using GeneXpert or other molecular techniques for TB diagnosis as key to early access to therapy; it will also improve treatment outcomes and decrease transmission rates.
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