Cause-specific mortality amongst Retroviral Disease patients admitted in a tertiary health facility in northeastern Nigeria- a retrospective analysis


  • Ballah Akawu Denue Department of Medicine College of Medical Sciences PMB 1069 University of Maiduguri
  • Stanley M Maduagwu Department of Physiotheraphy, College of Medical Sciences, PMB 1069 University of Maiduguri,Borno State, Nigeria
  • Auta Akilahyel Ndah Department of Medicine, College of Medical Sciences, PMB 1069, University of Maiduguri, Borno State
  • Ijuptil Chiroma Department of Medicine, College of Medical Sciences, PMB 1069, University of Maiduguri, Borno State
  • Mohammed Bashir Alkali Department of Medicine, College of Medical Sciences, PMB 1069, University of Maiduguri, Borno State


HIV/AIDS, Cause of death, Northeastern Nigeria.


Background: Compared with the general population, HIV infected patients are at an additional risk of death from direct effects of HIV virus and/or immune dysfunction.

Aim: To establish the cause(s) of death among persons with HIV and AIDS admitted to the infectious diseases and immunology unit of University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital.

Methods: Retrospective chart review of hospital deaths between January 2004 to December 2014 . Information was abstracted from case file and death certificates.

Results: Of the 115 total deaths, 64 (55.7%), 45 (39.1% and 6 (5.2%) were due to AIDS related, HIV related and non-AIDS or HIV related diseases respectively. Patients aged 16 -49 years constituted 87(87.9%).  HIV associated wasting syndrome was the most common cause of AIDS related deaths. It was responsible for (46.8%), it was followed by oesophageal candidiasis  (19.4%) and Pneumocystis jiroveci (13.0%). Severe sepsis was the commonest cause of HIV related deaths, it was responsible for 27.9% of cases, it was followed by TB 25% (Disseminated 13.6%, Tuberculoma 10% and Multi Drug Resistant form 1.4%) and HIV associated nephropathy (HIVAN), 12.3%.

Conclusion: Patients admitted with advanced HIV disease in WHO clinical stages III and IV are at risk of death from HIV related diseases or AIDS defining illness. HIV associated wasting syndrome, sepsis and tuberculosis are common cause of death in patients with advanced HIV disease in our setting. The finding from this study suggests missed opportunities for early diagnosis and treatment of HIV infected patients exist in our environment.


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How to Cite

Denue, B. A., Maduagwu, S. M., Ndah, A. A., Chiroma, I., & Alkali, M. B. (2019). Cause-specific mortality amongst Retroviral Disease patients admitted in a tertiary health facility in northeastern Nigeria- a retrospective analysis. The Nigerian Health Journal, 18(2), 81–89. Retrieved from

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