Tuberculosis and associated risk factors: A 5-Year review in a tertiary hospital, Kaduna Northwest Nigeria




Tuberculosis, drug sensitive tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), outcome, directly observed treatment short course (DOTs)


Background: There has been different strategies in the eradication of tuberculosis worldwide and the different risk factors contributing to its occurrence need to be identified and corrected. This study set out to review and identify associated risk factors affecting the outcome of tuberculosis (TB) in a tertiary hospital in Kaduna, Nigeria.

Method: A retrospective study among patients treated for tuberculosis between January 2015 and December 2019 in a tertiary hospital, Kaduna state, North- West Nigeria. Diagnosis of tuberculosis was made if mycobacterium tuberculosis was detected in the patient’s sputum or extracellular fluid using a Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique of sputum, genexpert, radiology, biopsy of tissue specimen, doctor’s decision to treat for tuberculosis on clinical ground or a combination of these. Data was analyzed using SPSS IBM version 23.0. 


A total of 1573 cases were enrolled during this period consisting of 992 (63.1%) males and 581 (36.9%) females. Their mean age was 35.78 ± 15.49 years with the age group 21-40 years 815 (51.8%) being most affected. Majority 1421 (90.3%) were new with a treatment success rate of 88.1%. Bivariate analysis revealed that age >40years (p=0.00), positive HIV status (p=0.00) and extrapulmonary site (p=0.02) had negatively affected treatment outcome.


The treatment success rate was high though some mortality noted. Efforts should be made to increase awareness of TB and more attention should be placed on patients at higher risk of poor treatment outcomes.

Author Biography

Modupe Arinola Ogunsina, Barau Dikko Teaching Hospital Kaduna State University Kaduna

Department of Medicine


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2022-04-12 — Updated on 2022-07-12


How to Cite

Ogunsina, M. A. (2022). Tuberculosis and associated risk factors: A 5-Year review in a tertiary hospital, Kaduna Northwest Nigeria. The Nigerian Health Journal, 22(1), 66–78. (Original work published April 12, 2022)

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